“Consumers want personalised offers and experiences”. “Personalisation ensures customers receive the best deal they can get”. These quotes could be easily attributed to a tech company executive. The technological means to personalise prices online are extensive and developing rapidly. Companies use profiling and data analytics to tailor prices and offers to the extent that an individual becomes a market in oneself. With first grade price personalisation, consumers cannot compare prices any longer and a reference price for the market does not exist anymore. The aim is often to extract the maximum that an individual is willing to pay, or to vary prices to reflect the cost of serving individual customers. How can we have fair and transparent markets in this situation? Do competition, consumer and data protection regulate price personalisation adequately and protect consumers from abuse?
• What are the harmful effects that personalised pricing has for
• What are the legal issues that personalised pricing raises from a competition, consumer and data protection law perspective?
• How should regulation address personalised pricing to adequately protect consumers?
• How can we tackle unfair personalised pricing practices through the interdisciplinary enforcement of competition, data protection and consumer law?